Day-to-Day Care


Observation:  Urine


Urine consists of excess water and waste products that have been filtered from the blood by the kidneys.  It is a clear, transparent fluid, normally has an amber color. The natural color is due to excretion of urochrome, a blood pigment.  The amount of fluids you drink can also influence the colour of urine from almost clear (diluted) to dark orange (concentrated).


The amount of urine passed on average is 500mls less than the total amount of fluid taken in.  For example, if a patient drinks 2000mls of fluid, approximately 1500mls of urine will be passed.  However, if the weather is hot and the person is sweating a lot or his bowel are loose and watery, the urine output will be less.
Most changes in urine color are temporary and caused by food colors or medications. However, an abnormal urine color may indicate a serious disease. Consult your doctor if you're concerned about the color of urine, especially if you notice blood in it.
Types of Urine and Indications


Urine which is darker or paler than usual:  an indication that it is more concentrated or more dilute than would normally be the case.

Smoky or red-coloured urine:  an indication that there may be blood present.

Dark brown or tea colored: sign of liver disorders indicating that bile may be present, especially if accompanied by pale stools and jaundice.  It could also due to the side effect of certain medications, blood in urine, and certain foods and food dyes.

Cloudy or murky urine:  an indication that blood, pus or excess mucus are present.  This is a common sign of urinary tract infections and kidney stones.

Hazy urine which smells fishy:  this is usually a sign of bladder infection.


Consult your doctor if you are concerned about the changes in the urine.